The urethra is the smooth, muscular tube through which urine leaves the body. Urethral stricture may be caused by inflammation or scar tissue from surgery, disease, or injury. It may also be caused by external pressure from an enlarging tumor near the urethra, although this is rare.

Blunt perineal trauma, urethral catheterization or instrumentation, lichen sclerosus and sexually transmitted diseases are the most frequent causes of strictures. However, most causes of urethral strictures remain unknown, but they are probably the result of a remote unrecognized perineal trauma experienced during childhood.

Increased risk is also associated with men who have a history of sexually transmitted disease (STD: CHLAMYDIA, GONORRHEA AND SO ON.), repeated episodes of urethritis, or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

The symptoms are:

  • Painful urination;
  • Difficulty urinating;
  • Slow urine stream;
  • Urinary urgency;
  • Incontinence;
  • Blood in urine or semen;
  • Discharge from the urethra;
  • Penis swelling;
  • Pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen.

The metods of diagnosis are:

  • Retrograde urethrography;
  • Urine flow rate (uroflowmetry);
  • Cystourethroscopy;
  • Urethral Ultransonography; and
  • Blood tests, urinalysis, and urine culture.
  • Tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea
  • A retrograde urethrogram to confirm diagnosis

The treatment for urethral strictures include numerous options, such as dilation, urethrotomy, stent and reconstructive surgical techniques and emphasized that no one technique is appropriate for all stricture diseases. The treatment for urethral strictures include:

  • Urethral dilation;
  • Internal urethrotomy;
  • Stent placement;
  • Open surgical reconstruction

The Complications of stricture disease are:

  • urethral discharge
  • urinary tract infection
  • cystitis (inflammation of the bladder)
  • chronic prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland) or epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, a system of ducts that stores the sperm during maturation).
  • abscess in tissue surrounding the urethra
  • urethral diverticulum (abnormal pouch opening from the urethra)/calculus (hardened mineral salts)
  • urethrocutaneous fistula (abnormal passage)
  • urethral cancer (one third to one half of males with urethral cancer have a history of stricture disease).
  • bladder stones (due to chronic slowing or stopping of urinary flow and infection).


Urethral reconstruction Definition Urethra wikipedia.org, Definizione Uretra wikipedia.org (spanish version), Definition Female Urethra by Bartleby.com, Definition Male Urethra by Bartleby.com, Phoenix Glossary, Strong Health, Dr. Greene.com, Pathology Outlines.com, Medline Plus, Loyola University Chicago, Nucleus Medical Art, Definition Urethra of Answers.com, Emedicine.com, MedicineNet.com, National center for biotechnology Information, Digital Urology Journal, AJP Renal Physiology, Cáncer de la uretra - National Cancer Institute - US National Insitutes of Health (Spanish Version), Lesión traumática de la vejiga y la uretra - (Spanish Version) National Library of Medice. US, Reparación quirúrgica de la uretra y la vejiga